Table 3 Results of chi-squared tests for differences in the frequencies of sex-biased vs. -unbiased genes, male- vs. female-biased genes, and candidate sex-determining genes (CG) vs. other genes (not CG) between the pseudoautosomal region (PAR), the sex-linked region (SL), linkage group 1 (LG1), and autosomes (Au)
Sex-biased vs. unbiasedFemale-biased vs. male-biasedCandidate gene vs. other gene
UnbiasedSex-biasedTotalFemale biasedMale biasedTotalNot CGCGTotal
PAR1168411,2092219411,177321,209
96.6%3.4%100%53.7%46.3%100%97.4%2.6%100%
SL5363256816163254622568
94.4%5.6%100%50%50%100%96.1%3.9%100%
Total17047317773835731,723541,777
95.9%4.1%100%52.1%47.9%100%97%3%100%
Testχ2 = 4.381 df = 1 ϕ = 0.053 P = 0.036*χ2 = 0.006 df = 1 ϕ = 0.036 P = 0.941χ2 = 1.578 df = 1 ϕ = 0.033 P = 0.209
Au80562438,2999015324380942078,301
97.1%2.9%100%37%63%100%97.5%2.5%100%
LG11704731,7773835731,723541,777
95.9%4.1%100%52.1%47.9%100%97%3%100%
Total976031610,076128188316981726110,078
96.9%3.1%100%40.5%59.5%100%97.4%2.6%100%
Testχ2 = 6.326 df = 1 ϕ = 0.026 P = 0.012*Χ2 = 4.649 df = 1 ϕ = 0.129 P = 0.031*χ2 = 1.515 df = 1 ϕ = 0.013 P = 0.218
Au80562438,2999015324380942078,301
97.1%2.9%100%37%63%100%97.5%2.5%100%
SL5363256816163254622568
94.4%5.6%100%50%50%100%96.1%3.9%100%
Total8,5922758,86710616927586402298,869
96.9%3.1%100%38.5%61.5%100%97.4%2.6%100%
Testχ2 = 12.066 df = 1 ϕ = 0.038 P < 0.001*χ2 = 1.496 df = 1 ϕ = 0.085 P = 0.221χ2 = 3.493 df = 1 ϕ = 0.021 P = 0.062
  • * Significant difference.