Table 1 The frequency, phenotype (fitness), and quantitative genetic properties of the four genotypes at an imprinted locus
GenotypeA1A1A1A2A2A1A2A2
Frequenciesp2pqqpq2
Phenotype (fitness)R + aR + diR + d + iRa
Dominance deviation−2 q2d2dpq2dpq−2p2d
Imprinting deviation
 Mean0000
 MothersEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
 FathersEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Breeding values
 Mean (= additive deviation)Embedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
 MothersEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
 FathersEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • Genotypes are written with the maternally inherited allele first. The breeding values are the sums of the average effects of the alleles, expressed in terms of the average effect of an allele substitution (α) (given in Equation 2), and differ for sires and dams. The additive and dominance deviations for each genotype match those from the standard model and do not differ between fathers and mothers. The imprinting deviations differ between fathers and mothers for each genotype, but are all equal to 0 when averaged across the two types of parents. Note that the sum of the imprinting and additive deviations gives the breeding value for each genotype of each type of parent.