Table 2 Phenotypic resemblance among relatives, given by their covariation in a randomly mating population
RelationshipCovarianceComponents of variance
Mid-parent-offspringEmbedded Image½VA
Mother-offspringEmbedded Image½VA − ½covA,O(all) = ½Vh(dams)
Father-offspringEmbedded Image½VA + ½covA,O (all) = ½Vh(sires)
Maternal half-siblingsEmbedded Image¼VA + ¼VO − ½covA,O (all) = ¼VB(dams) = ¼[Vh(dams) + (dams)]
Paternal half-siblingsEmbedded Image¼VA + ¼VO + ½covA,O (all) = ¼VB(sires) = ¼[Vh(sires) + (sires)]
Full-siblingsEmbedded Image½VA + ½VO + ¼VD
  • Also shown are the covariances expressed in terms of the components of variance (additive, dominance and imprinting (co)variances).