Table 1

Glossary of terms

adaptors: short unique DNA sequences that are added to DNA fragments so that the fragments can attach to the flowcell to be sequenced
cDNA: otherwise known as complementary DNA synthesized from a single stranded RNA template by using a reverse transcriptase
DAPI: a fluorescent dye that labels the DNA in the nucleus
diakinesis: (sub-stage of prophase 1 in meiosis) chromosomes are at their most condensed, homologous chromosomes are still connected via chiamata
diplotene: (sub-stage of prophase 1 in meiosis) the synaptonemal complex disassembles and chiasmata (the physical representation of crossover events) becomes visible
fluorophore: fluorescent chemical compound that will emit light when excited
high-throughput sequencing: refers to sequencing techniques in which the whole genome is sequenced, not just one gene or a portion of a gene
mass-spectrometry: digests proteins into small fragments and based on the molecular weight determines the sequence of those short stretches of amino acids
microfluidic device: equipment that utilizes very small amounts of liquid on a microchip to perform laboratory experiments
model organism: non-human organism used for studies that will provide insights into the same biological functions in other organisms such as humans; often chosen for study due to their simplicity, tractability, cost, and quick reproductive time
oligos: short DNA fragments (often single-stranded)
pachytene: (sub-stage of prophase 1 in meiosis) chromosomes shorten and thicken and the synaptonemal complex forms
sheath cells: somatic cells that surround the gonad arm
somatic gonad: all of the non-reproductive tissues of the C. elegans gonad arm
spermatheca: somatic structure where the sperm are stored
synaptonemal complex: a multi-protein complex that forms between pairs of homologous chromosomes during meiosis that is required for proper recombination and chromosome segregation