Table 4 Neurons in which daf-19 controls target gene expression
NeuronTarget genesSelected neuron functions
IL2sasic-2, spg-20, ddn-1Dauer behavior
URXddn-1Suppresses innate immunity, life span regulation
ASKddn-1Initiates local search behavior
AFDddn-1Ablation causes hypo-reversal
ASGddn-1, eppl-1, del-4Inhibits entry into dauer
ASIddn-1Suppresses turning, promotes dispersal, modulates innate immune response
ASEdel-4, eppl-1, ddn-1Food leaving behavior
AIYdel-4Suppresses turns and reversals, regulates life span, starvation response
I5ddn-1Regulates pharyngeal muscle relaxation
PHA, PHBmapk-15Chemorepulsion, mate searching
IL1sskr-12, mapk-15Spontaneous and faster foraging
OLQsskr-12Spontaneous and faster foraging
BAGgakh-1Controls life span, food leaving behavior
AFDskr-12Ablation causes hypo-reversal
ADFskr-12Inhibits entry into dauer, modulates NMJ transmission
ASGskr-12Inhibits entry into dauer
I2rgs-8.1Unknown function
RIDrgs-8.1Unknown function
AVAgakh-1Driver for backward locomotion
AVBgakh-1Driver for forward locomotion
SIAD/Vgakh-1Nerve ring placement
AINgakh-1Unknown function
M4gakh-1Posterior isthmus peristalsis
  • Neurons in which daf-19 presence activates or represses target gene expression, and associated neuron functions [from Altun et al. (2002–2017)] relevant to daf-19 mutant phenotypes. Neurons are listed top to bottom by their position in the worm, anterior to posterior. Ciliated sensory neurons are in bold. NMJ, neuromuscular junction.