Table 3 Summary of mutational effects for mutations evolved under heat-shock selection
StrainGrowth rate (γ)Embedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageDecay rate (δ)Embedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageOverall fitness (w)Embedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
ID8Embedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
FEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image.53Embedded Image11.56Embedded Image1.79
GEmbedded Image2.48Embedded Image8.21Embedded Image4.12
HEmbedded Image3.06Embedded Image8.70Embedded Image4.80
IEmbedded Image4.98Embedded ImageEmbedded Image.46Embedded Image2.09
JEmbedded Image2.18Embedded Image11.58Embedded Image4.50
FGLethalEmbedded Image.062.53Embedded Image.5919.770Embedded Image.325.91Embedded Image.23
FHEmbedded Image0.452.53Embedded Image.620.97Embedded Image.09Embedded Image5.1520.26Embedded Image.55Embedded Image.Embedded ImageEmbedded Image.12Embedded Image1.476.59Embedded Image.Embedded ImageEmbedded Image.31Embedded Image.11
FIEmbedded Image2.564.45Embedded Image.413.09Embedded Image.89Embedded Image0.83Embedded Image.9015.29Embedded Image.733.73Embedded Image2.733.870.650.95Embedded Image.14
FJEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image.021.66Embedded Image.210.50Embedded Image.68Embedded Image9.4623.14Embedded Image.12Embedded Image.11Embedded Image.69Embedded Image1.876.28Embedded Image.Embedded Image0.08Embedded Image.42
GHEmbedded Image4.215.541.151.73Embedded Image.33Embedded Image5.7216.90Embedded Image.97Embedded Image.48Embedded Image.18Embedded Image5.368.920.561.24Embedded Image.56
GIEmbedded Image5.267.450.292.79Embedded Image.19Embedded ImageEmbedded Image.68Embedded Image.2510.78Embedded Image.882.58Embedded Image4.536.202.440.41Embedded Image.68
GJEmbedded Image3.204.661.020.72Embedded Image.46Embedded Image12.1619.780.593.96Embedded Image.62Embedded Image5.638.621.141.52Embedded Image.98
HIEmbedded Image1.848.04Embedded Image.Embedded ImageEmbedded Image.23Embedded Image.20Embedded ImageEmbedded Image.99Embedded Image.7613.47Embedded Image.684.78Embedded Image1.646.89Embedded Image.45Embedded Image.Embedded ImageEmbedded Image.25
HJLethalEmbedded Image.065.24Embedded Image.3020.280Embedded Image.329.30Embedded Image.62
IJEmbedded Image2.537.160.34Embedded Image.Embedded ImageEmbedded Image.63Embedded ImageEmbedded Image.91Embedded Image.89Embedded Image.4811.55Embedded Image.02Embedded Image1.956.58Embedded Image.Embedded ImageEmbedded Image.14Embedded Image.64
  • γ, δ, and w are given as the average ± SE over five replicate fitness assay measurements. Embedded Image, Embedded Image, and Embedded Image denote the fitness effect of the genotype relative to the wild-type (ID8). Embedded Image, Embedded Image, and Embedded Image give the expected fitness of a mutation pair under additivity. Embedded Image, Embedded Image, and Embedded Image give the effect of adding the first mutation in the double-mutant genotype name into the background of the second, and Embedded Image, Embedded Image, and Embedded Image give the effect of the second mutation in the background of the first. These are measurements of sign epistasis.Embedded Image, Embedded Image, and Embedded Image denote the deviation from additivity, as calculated by Equation 2 or by subtracting the value of Embedded Image, Embedded Image, or Embedded Image from Embedded Image, Embedded Image, or Embedded Image. A * for each double-mutant denotes significant sign epistasis for the effects of each single mutation in the background containing the second single mutation.