Table 2 Average performances across environments for the hybrids and variance components
Average performancesaVariance components
TraitHybrids between founder linesExperimental hybridsEffectsGlobalbWithin-populationb
DMC33.5 (30.2–36.1)33.0 (25.7–41.3)Flint GCA2.31 (0.26)***0.98 (0.23)***
(% of fresh weight)Dent GCA0.92 (0.27)***0.96 (0.23)***
SCA0.43 (0.27)ns0.53 (0.25)*
Residual1.45–6.13c1.52–6.04c
H0.890.85
%SCA11.721.5
DMY16.5 (14.8–18.4)16.0 (11.8–20.2)Flint GCA0.28 (0.10)***0.30 (0.10)***
(t.ha−1)Dent GCA0.74 (0.10)***0.44 (0.09)***
SCA0.22 (0.11)*0.20 (0.10)*
Residual1.00–3.53c1.02–3.56c
H0.810.77
%SCA17.421.0
DtSILK211.6 (209.2–213.6)211.5 (206.7–217.9)Flint GCA0.74 (0.19)***0.51 (0.19)***
(days after January 1)Dent GCA1.26 (0.18)***1.09 (0.17)***
SCA0.39 (0.19)*0.47 (0.19)**
Residual0.96–6.13c0.96–6.12c
H0.890.88
%SCA16.322.6
PH251 (229–275)248 (204–283)Flint GCA42.9 (11.7)***38.4 (8.9)***
(cm)Dent GCA92.8 (11.0)***45.1 (8.2)***
SCA19.3 (11.8)ns13.4 (8.8)ns
Residual50.0–243.6c46.7–243.2c
H0.880.82
%SCA12.413.8
  • Shown are the average performances across environments for the hybrids between founder lines and the experimental hybrids and variance components estimated using two models ignoring (global) or including (within-population) the population structure of the design, for DMC, DMY, female flowering time (DtSILK), and PH. Variance components were used to compute trait heritability and the percentage of hybrid variance due to SCA (in bold). ns, nonsignificant; H, heritability; %SCA, percentage of hybrid variance due to SCA. * P < 5%, ** P < 1%, *** P < 0.1%.

  • a For each category of hybrids, range of variation (minimal and maximum values) is indicated between brackets.

  • b SD of the GCA and SCA variance components is shown between brackets along with the level of significance of the random effect.

  • c Minimum and maximum environmental residual variances.