Table 2 Monoaminergic neurons
Neuron Classcat-1/VMATa5HT Abbtph-1DActdc-1d (Tyramine)tbh-1d (Octopamine)Aminergic Neurotransmitter UsageOther Small Neurotransmitter
NSM+++++5HTUnknown
ADF+++++5HTUnknown
HSNe+++++5HTACh
CP01-06e+++++5HTGlu (CP05-06)
R1Be+++5HTUnknown
R3Be+++++5HTUnknown
R9Be+++++5HTGABA
AIM+++5HT clearance?hGlu/ACh
URX+5HT clearance?hAch
I5±5HT clearance?hGlu
CEMe±5HT clearance?hACh
RIH+++5HT uptakeiACh
VC04/05e± (?)f± (?)f5HT uptakeiACh
PGAe±g+++5HT uptakeiACh
PVW±g+5HT uptakeiUnknown
ADE++DopaminergicUnknown
CEP++DopaminergicUnknown
PDE++DopaminergicUnknown
R5A/7A/9Ae++DopaminergicGlu (R5A, R9A)
RIM+++OctopaminergicGlu
RIC++TyraminergicUnknown
HOAe++TyraminergicGlu
R8A/8Be+Tyraminergic (release?)ACh
CAN+?Unknown
  • VMAT, vesicular monoamine transporter; 5HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine; Ab, antibody; DA, dopamine; ACh, acetylcholine; Glu, glutamate; GABA, γ-aminobutyric acid.

  • a CAT-1/VMAT expression by antibody staining was previously described in the hermaphrodite in AIM, NSM, ADF, RIH, HSN, VC04/05, ADE, CEP, PDE, RIM, and RIC (Duerr et al. 1999).

  • b 5HT antibody staining was previously detected in AIM, RIH, VC04/05, NSM, ADF, and HSN (Horvitz et al. 1982; Sze et al. 2000; Jafari et al. 2011). In the male, 5HT was detected in the rays R1B, 3B, and 9B, in the CP01-06, and in one neuron in the tail (Loer and Kenyon 1993).

  • c Dopaminergic staining was previously described (Sulston et al. 1975; Lints and Emmons 1999).

  • d tdc-1 expression was reported in the hermaphrodite before in RIC and RIM; tbh-1 was reported to be expressed in RIM (Alkema et al. 2005).

  • e Sex-specific neurons.

  • f Duerr et al. (1999) reported CAT-1/VMAT antibody staining and weak and variable anti-5HT in VC04/05. We do not observed cat-1/VMAT fosmid reporter expression or 5HT antibody staining.

  • g Expression only visible upon mCherry-antibody staining of cat-1/VMAT fosmid reporter expression strain.

  • h Does not synthesize or synaptically release 5HT.

  • i Does not synthesize 5HT, but can synaptically release 5HT that was taken up.