Table 1 Summary of glutamatergic, male-specific neurons
ClassNeuronNeuron FunctionGlu (eat-4/VGLUT)ACh (unc-17/VACHT, cho-1/CHT)Aminergic NeurotransmitterOther Neurotransmitter
Ventral nerve cord
CP05Inter/motor+Serotonin (tph-1, cat-1)unc-47/VGAT only [anti-GABA(−)]a
CP06Inter/motor+Serotonin (tph-1, cat-1)unc-47/VGAT only [anti-GABA(−)]a
Tail: preanal ganglion
 HOAHOASensory+++Tyramineb (cat-1/VMAT, tdc-1)unc-47/VGAT only [anti-GABA(−)]a
Tail: lumbar ganglion
 RnAR5ALSensory++Dopamine (cat-1/VMAT, cat-2/TH)low unc-47/VGAT only [anti-GABA(−)]a
R5ARSensory++Dopamine (cat-1/VMAT, cat-2/TH)low unc-47/VGAT only [anti-GABA(−)]a
R9ALSensory+Dopamine (cat-1/VMAT, cat-2/TH)low unc-47/VGAT only [anti-GABA(−)]a
R9ARSensory+Dopamine (cat-1/VMAT, cat-2/TH)low unc-47/VGAT only [anti-GABA(−)]a
Tail: cloacal ganglion
  • See text for information on reporter transgenes. cat-2/TH data from (Lints and Emmons 1999). Glu, glutamate; ACh, acetylcholine; VGAT, vesicular GABA transporter; VMAT, vesicular monoamine transporter; GABA, γ-aminobutyric acid. Number of “+” indicate relative levels of reporter expression.

  • a unc-47/VGAT expression in the absence of anti-GABA staining indicates usage of another neurotransmitter, perhaps glycine (see text).

  • b tdc-1 is only detected in young adult males.