Table 3 Summary of fixed effects and covariates found to be significantly associated with personality traits using mixed linear models
TraitFactor
AgeCoat colorSex/NeuterHealthHousingExerciseRole
SetA
 Agitated****
 Attention******
 Barking***
 Excitability*******
 Fetching******
 HOFear******
 NoiseFear******
 NOAggression********
 OAggression***
 SepAnxiety********
 Trainability*******
 Unusual********
SetB
 Attachment*****
 Chasing********
 Dog-directed aggression*****
 Dog-directed fear*****
 Dog rivalry
 Energy level******
 Excitability********
 Non-social fear******
 Owner-directed aggression**
 Separation-related behavior*******
 Stranger-directed aggression********
 Stranger-directed fear**
 Touch sensitivity****
 Trainability*****
  • * P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.