Table 3 Univariable robust Cox model result on progression to late AMD
AREDSAREDS2
HR (95% CI)P ValueHR (95% CI)P Value
Variable
 Baseline age (yr)1.09 (1.07, 1.10)2.8 × 10−231.06 (1.05, 1.07)6.6 × 10−29
 Sex
  FemaleReferenceReference
  Male0.91 (0.78, 1.05)0.200.91 (0.79, 1.06)0.22
 Education
  ≤High schoolReferenceReference
  >High school0.67 (0.58, 0.78)2.5 × 10−70.78 (0.66, 0.91)1.8 × 10−3
 Baseline smoking
  NeverReferenceReference
  Former1.32 (1.14, 1.54)3.2 × 10−41.21 (1.04, 1.40)0.01
  Current2.20 (1.65, 2.92)6.3 × 10−81.15 (0.84, 1.57)0.40
Treatmenta
Placebo: referencePlacebo: reference
Antioxidants alone:0.73L+Z:0.52
0.96 (0.79, 1.19)0.94 (0.76, 1.15)
Zinc:0.07LCPUFA:0.56
1.20 (0.98, 1.48)1.06 (0.87, 1.30)
Antioxidants plus zinc:0.40L+Z plus LCPUFA:0.21
1.09 (0.89, 1.34)1.14 (0.93,1.40)
Baseline study eye severity score1.96 (1,89, 2.03)<1.0 × 10−3001.89 (1.74, 2.06)1.0 × 10−47
GRSb1.85 (1.75, 1.96)7.1 × 10−991.14 (1.08, 1.21)2.6 × 10−6
  • a In AREDS, in addition to the treatment variable itself, the baseline AMD severity score of the study eye was also included to adjust for the unbalanced disease severity level across treatment groups due to the randomization scheme.

  • b For 0.1 unit increase in GRS.