Table 2 Summary statistics of 15 grain carotenoid traits
BLUPsHeritabilities
TraitNo. of linesMeanSDaRangeEstimateSEb
β-Carotene1991.310.610.31–3.270.820.035
β-Cryptoxanthin1991.441.050.13–5.170.950.009
Zeaxanthin19612.906.861.44–32.400.940.008
α-Carotene2011.240.380.45–2.650.250.049
Zeinoxanthin1980.820.820.12–5.290.880.016
Lutein20011.164.731.23–23.930.940.011
Acyclic and monocyclic carotenes2005.541.053.39–8.920.570.060
Total carotenoids20132.6610.669.55–62.960.910.013
β-Carotenoids/α-carotenoids1901.921.170–7.870.980.002
β-Xanthophylls/α-xanthophylls1961.741.230.45–6.370.830.022
β-Carotene/β-cryptoxanthin1981.130.490.51–3.060.890.029
β-Cryptoxanthin/zeaxanthin1960.120.050.04–0.390.900.021
α-Carotene/zeinoxanthin1962.571.620.52–8.880.900.019
Zeinoxanthin/Lutein1950.100.060.03–0.420.890.023
Provitamin Ac1992.681.010.81–5.550.800.033
  • Means and ranges (μg/g) for untransformed BLUPs of 15 carotenoid traits evaluated on a maize inbred association panel and estimated heritability on a line mean basis in two summer environments in West Lafayette, Indiana, across 2 years.

  • a SD, standard deviation.

  • b SE, standard error.

  • c Provitamin A is calculated as the sum of β-carotene, 1/2 α-carotene, and 1/2 β-cryptoxanthin.