Table 1 List of 24 grain carotenoid traits that were annalyzed
Traits listed in Table 2Traits listed in Table S5
β-CaroteneaPhytofluenea
β-Cryptoxanthinaζ-Carotenea
ZeaxanthinaTetrahydrolycopenea
α-CaroteneaTotal β-xanthophyllsb
ZeinoxanthinaTotal α-xanthophyllsb
LuteinaProvitamin Ac/total carotenoidsb
Acyclic and monocyclic carotenesbAcyclic carotenes/cyclic carotenesb
Total carotenoidsbβ-Carotene/(β-cryptoxanthin + zeaxanthin)b
β-Carotenoids/α-carotenoidsbTotal carotenes/total xanthophyllsb
β-Xanthophylls/α-xanthophyllsb
β-Carotene/β-cryptoxanthinb
β-Cryptoxanthin/zeaxanthinb
α-Carotene/zeinoxanthinb
Zeinoxanthin/luteinb
Provitamin Ab,c
  • The means of the BLUP values and heritability estimates for the 15 traits listed in the left column are reported in Table 2 and the values and estimates for the remaining traits are listed in Table S5.

  • a Individual carotenoid compound measured by HPLC.

  • b Derivative carotenoid trait.

  • c Provitamin A is calculated as the sum of β-carotene, 1/2 α-carotene, and 1/2 β-cryptoxanthin.