Table 3 Formulas to adjust genetic estimates of effective size to correct biases due to age structure
MethodFormula
To estimate Nb
 Using true Nb/NeEmbedded Image
 Using two traitsEmbedded Image
 Using three traitsEmbedded Image
To estimate Ne
 Using true Nb/NeEmbedded Image
 Using two traitsEmbedded Image
 Using three traitsEmbedded Image
  • Raw Embedded Image is the unadjusted estimate obtained using the LD method from a sample from a single cohort. AL, adult life span; α, age at maturity; CVf, an index of variation in age-specific fecundity (see Table 1 for definitions and notation). Different adjustments are provided, depending on whether the goal is to estimate Nb or Ne and on the type of information available for the species of interest (data for two or three life history traits or an estimate of true Nb/Ne). Adjustments based on Nb/Ne use results from AgeNe and the regression shown in Figure 2B; adjustments based on two or three life history traits use the relationships described in Waples et al. (2013).