Table 1 List of traits modified in the “domestication syndrome” in mammals*
TraitAnimal speciesLocation/sourceReferences
Depigmentation (especially white patches, brown regions)Mouse, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, dog, cat, fox, mink, ferret, pig, reindeer, sheep, goat, cattle, horse, camel, alpaca, and guanacoCranial and trunka
Floppy earsRabbit, dog, fox, pig, sheep, goat, cattle, and donkeyCranialb
Reduced earsRat, dog, cat, ferret, camel, alpaca, and guanacoCranialc
Shorter muzzlesMouse, dog, cat, fox, pig, sheep, goat, and cattleCraniald
Smaller teethMouse, dog, and pigCraniale
DocilityAll domesticated speciesCranialf
Smaller brain or cranial capacityRat, guinea pig, gerbil, rabbit, pig, sheep, goat, cattle, yak, llama, camel, horse, donkey, ferret, cat, dog, and minkCranialg
Reproductive cycles (more frequent estrous cycles)Mouse, rat, gerbil, dog, cat, fox, goat, and guanacoCranial and trunk (HPG axis)h
Neotenous (juvenile) behaviorMouse, dog, fox, and bonoboCraniali
Curly tailsDog, fox, and pigTrunkj
  • *Relative to those in the corresponding presumed wild ancestors.

  • a Darwin 1868; Belyaev and Trut 1989; Gariépy et al. 2001; Trut et al. 2009.

  • b Darwin 1868; Belyaev and Trut 1989.

  • c Hemmer 1990; Arbuckle 2005.

  • d Darwin 1868; Zeuner 1963; Clutton-Brock 1999.

  • e Darwin 1868; Clutton-Brock 1999.

  • f Darwin 1868; Belyaev 1969.

  • g Kruska 1988a; Hemmer 1990; Kruska 2005.

  • h Darwin 1868; Kruska 1988a; Arbuckle 2005; Kruska 2005; Trut et al. 2009.

  • i Price 1999; Trut 1999; Gariépy et al. 2001; Hare et al. 2012.

  • j Darwin 1868; Trut et al. 2009.