Table 1 Phenotypic analysis of einkorn wheat lines
ConditionsTraitKT3-1 (wt)nKT3-5 (mut)nP value
SDDays to heading>21410168 ± 2.1410NA
 22°/18°Spikelet numberNo spikes1026 ± 0.8110NA
 8 hr/16 hrSpike length (cm)No spikes106.82 ± 0.2210NA
 Day/nightTiller number24 ± 0.981038.±1.49101.34 × 10−7
LD + coolDays to heading86 ± 0.52667 ± 0.23104.7 × 10−15
 16°/14°Days to anthesis103 ± 0.56682 ± 0.34108.4 × 10−14
 16 hr/8 hrSpikelet number35 ± 0.51631 ± 0.16108.3 × 10−8
 Day/nightSpike length (cm)8.56 ± 0.0768.3 ± 0.14100.14
Tiller number12 ± 0.4969 ± 0.71100.0052
TKW (g)28.93729.485NA
KNP348 ± 317338 ± 1250.81
LD + warmDays to heading100 ± 0.99780 ± 0.6271.6 × 10−10
 26°/24°Days to anthesis108 ± 1.47788 ± 0.7679.5 × 10−9
 16 hr/8 hrSpikelet number21 ± 1.18723 ± 0.3870.064
 Day/nightSpike length (cm)6.13 ± 0.2575.97 ± 0.2170.58
Tiller number17 ± 3.63716 ± 1.6570.75
TKW (g)17.2515.215NA
KNP31 ± 125111.2 ± 1750.0047
  • Conditions were applied from sowing until harvest. NA, not applicable; TKW, thousand kernel weight, measured with 0.001-g precision; KNP, kernel number per plant. KT3-5 mutant was grown along with the donor line KT3-1 under various conditions. Although the KT3-5 mutant always flowered earlier than KT3-1, difference in the spikelet number depended on the ambient temperature; KT3-1 developed more spikelets than KT3-5 at lower temperatures but the situation was different at higher temperatures. All values represent mean ± SEM (standard error of the mean). P values were calculated by using paired Student’s t-test.