Table 1 Formulas used to calculate marker generated kinship matrices
Type of effectOriginal kinship matrixNormalization factoraKinship matrix
Additive (a)Embedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Dominance (d)Embedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Additive × additive (aa)Embedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Dominance × dominance (dd)Embedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Additive × dominance (ad)Embedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Dominance × additive (da)Embedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • a Each marker-generated kinship matrix is normalized so that the diagonal elements are roughly equal to one. This is achieved by dividing the original kinship matrix by the mean value of all the diagonal elements of the original matrix. Using the normalized kinship matrix will bring the estimated genetic variance in the same scale as the residual error variance.