Table 2 Number of large factors recovered in each scenario
ScenarioExpectedMedianRange
No. factorsa1010(10,10)
b2525(23,25)
c5049(48,50)
R typed1010(10,10)
eNAa56(44,66)
No. traitsf109(8,11)
g1010(10,10)
Sample sizeh1010(10,10)
i1010(10,10)
j1010(10,10)
  • Each scenario was simulated 10 times. Factor magnitude was calculated as the L2-norm of the factor loadings, divided by the total phenotypic variance across all traits. Factors explaining >0.1% of total phenotypic variance were considered large.

  • a In scenario e, the residual matrix did not have a factor form.