Table 1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes implicated in cytoplasmic tRNA processing, turnover, and subcellular trafficking
Yeast geneFunctionNull mutant phenotypeReferences
Pre-tRNA end processing
POP1, POP3, POP4, POP5, POP6, POP7, POP8, RPP1, RPR2, RPR1RNase P – 5′ leader endonucleaseEssential(Chamberlain et al. 1998)
LHP1tRNA 3′ trailer processingNot essential(Yoo and Wolin 1997)
REX13′ trailer exonucleaseNot essential(Copela et al. 2008; Ozanick et al. 2009)
TRZ1RNase Z – 3′ trailer endonucleaseEssential(Takaku et al. 2003)
CCA1CCAEssential(Aebi et al. 1990)
THG1G-1 addition to tRNAHisEssential(Gu et al. 2003)
Pre-tRNA splicing
SEN2, SEN15, SEN34, SEN54Splicing endonucleaseEssential(Ho et al. 1990; Trotta et al. 1997)
TPT12′-phosphotransferaseEssential(Culver et al. 1997)
TRL1tRNA ligaseEssential(Phizicky et al. 1986)
tRNA Modification
DUS1D16, D17Not essential(Bishop et al. 2002; Xing et al. 2002)
DUS2D20Not essential(Xing et al. 2004)
DUS3D47Not essential(Xing et al. 2004)
DUS4D20a, D20bNot essential(Xing et al l. 2004)
ELP1, ELP2, ELP3, ELP4, ELP5, ELP6, KTI11, KTI12, KTI13, KTI14, SIT4, SAP185, SAP190mcm5U34, mcm5s2U34, ncm5U34, ncm5Um34Many phenotypes(Huang et al. 2005; Huang et al. 2008; Jablonowski et al. 2004)
NFS1, ISU1, ISU2, CFD1, NBP35, CIA1, URM1, UBA4, NCS2, NCS6, TUM1mcm5s2U34Not essential(Bjork et al. 2007; Huang et al. 2008; Nakai et al. 2007; Nakai et al. 2004)
MOD5i6A37Loss of suppression(Dihanich et al. 1987)
PUS1Ψ26, Ψ2728 Ψ34, Ψ(35), Ψ36, Ψ65, Ψ67Not essential(Motorin et al.. 1998; Simos et al. 1996)
PUS3Ψ38, Ψ39Slow growth(Lecointe et al.1998)
PUS4Ψ55Not essential(Becker et al. 1997)
PUS6Ψ31Not essential(Ansmant et al. 2001)
PUS7Ψ13, Ψ35Not essential(Behm-Ansmant et al. 2003)
PUS8Ψ32Not essential(Behm-Ansmant et al. 2004)
RIT1Ar(p)64Not essential(Astrom and Bystrom 1994)
SUA5, KEOPS, TCD1, TCD2ct6A37Very sick(El Yacoubi et al. 2009; Miyauchi et al. 2013)
TAD1I37Not essential(Gerber et al. 1998)
TAD2, TAD3I34Essential(Gerber and Keller 1999)
TAN1ac4C12Temperature sensitive(Johansson and Bystrom 2004)
TRM1m2,2G26Not essential(Ellis et al. 1986)
TRM2m5U54Not essential(Hopper et al. 1982; Nordlund et al. 2000)
TRM3Gm18Not essential(Cavaille et al. 1999)
TRM4m5C34, m5C40, m5C48, m5C49Not essential(Motorin and Grosjean 1999)
TRM5m1G37, m1I37, yW37Very sick(Bjork et al. 2001)
TRM6, TRM61m1A58Essential(Anderson et al. 1998)
TRM7, TRM732Cm32Synthetic slow growth with trm734Δ; paromomycin sensitive(Guy et al. 2012; Pintard et al. 2002)
TRM7, TRM734Cm34, Gm34, ncm5Um34Synthetic slow growth with trm732Δ; paromomycin sensitive(Guy et al. 2012; Pintard et al. 2002)
TRM8, TRM82m7G46Not essential(Alexandrov et al. 2002)
TRM9, TRM112mcm5U34 and mcm5s2U34Not essential; paromomycin sensitive(Kalhor and Clarke 2003; Studte et al. 2008)
TRM10m1G9Not essential(Jackman et al. 2003)
TRM11, TRM112m2G10Not essential(Purushothaman et al. 2005)
TRM13Am4, Gm4, Cm4Not essential(Wilkinson et al. 2007)
TRM44Um44Not essential(Kotelawala et al. 2008)
TRM140m3C32Not essential(D’Silva et al. 2011; Noma et al. 2011)
TYW1, TYW2, TYW3, TYW4, TRM5yW37Not essential; reading frame maintenance(Kalhor et al. 2005; Noma et al. 2006)
tRNA turnover/cleavage
TRF43′ poly(A) polymerase; TRAMP componentNot essential(Kadaba et al. 2004, 2006)
RRP443′ to 5′ exonuclease; exosome componentEssential(Kadaba et al. 2004, 2006)
MET22Methionine biosynthesispAp accumulation; Rat1 and Xrn1 inhibition(Dichtl et al. 1997; Chernyakov et al. 2008)
RAT15′ to 3′ exonuclease – RTD componentEssential(Chernyakov et al. 2008)
XRN15′ to 3′ exonuclease – RTD componentNot essential(Chernyakov et al. 2008)
RNY1endonuclease generating tRNA ∼halvesNot Essential(Thompson and Parker 2009b)
tRNA subcellular trafficking
LOS1Export, reexportNot essential(Hopper et al. 1980; Murthi et al. 2010)
MSN5ReexportNot essential(Murthi et al. 2010)
MTR10Retrograde importSick(Shaheen and Hopper 2005)
  • For complex modifications, underlined portion indicates the part of the modification due to the corresponding gene(s).