Table 1 Darwin’s primary symptoms are listed together with a probable medical diagnosis for that symptom or symptom group
Darwin’s symptomsProposed medical condition, with reference linking to A3243G mutation
Episodic nausea, retching, vomitingCVS, episodic vomiting (Pavlakis et al. 1984)
Flatulence, bloating, abdominal painGastric dysmotility (Fujii et al. 2004)
Tiredness, fatigue, general weaknessLethargy (Finsterer 2007)
HeadacheMigraine? encephalopathy (Kaufmann et al. 2009)
Eczema—lips, hands, faceAtopic dermatitis (Pronicki et al. 2002)
Excessive sea sicknessVestibular dysfunction (Iwasaki et al. 2011)
Palpitations, chest painHeart block, paroxysmal tachycardia? (Anan et al. 1995)
Trembling of hands, numbness of the fingersPeripheral neuropathy (Kaufmann et al. 2006)
Shivering, sweating, temperature sensitivity, fainting sensations, sinking feeling, “whizzing feelings,” “swimming” of the head, dizzinessDysautonomia, may be associated with CVS (Chelimsky et al. 2009)
Muscle twitching, muscle weaknessMyopathy (Finsterer 2007)
Anxiety, episodes of fear, dying sensations (acute panic attacks)Lactic acidosis (Ehlers et al. 1986)
Periods of dejection, true depressionDepression, mood disorder (Kaufmann et al. 2009)
Eye symptoms, visual disturbancesMigraine associated? MELAS-type symptom?
“Heaziness”—coughing, breathing difficulties, tightness of chestAsthma—may be associated with impaired mitochondrial function (Reddy 2011)
Backache—“lumbago,” “rheumatism in the back”Fibromyalgia? (DeSouza et al. 2004)
Swelling, redness of the face, swelling of a knee, an arm, one legAcute local edema? “carcinoid like” syndrome (Hayman 2011)
  • The references link the designated diagnosis to proposed mtDNA mutation. CVS, cyclic vomiting syndrome.