*x* | Effect size of a mutation or substitution |

µ | Mean effect size of spontaneous mutations |

σ | Standard deviation of the effect size of spontaneous mutations |

*k* | Number of mutations occurring between MA measurements |

*u* | Per-generation mutation rate affecting the trait |

*g* | Number of generations between MA measurements |

*s* | Selection coefficient |

*N* | Effective population size |

*c* | Strength of selection: slope of the relationship between *s* and *x* |

*C* | Normalizing constant to make Equation 8 a probability density function |

*n* | The number of loci detected |

**H** = (*H*_{1}, *H*_{2}*,…*, *H*_{n}) | Vector of the number of substitutions responsible for the QTL, where *h*_{i} is the number of substitutions responsible for QTL *i* |

**q** = (*q*_{1}, *q*_{2}*,…*, *q*_{n}) | Estimated effect sizes of the QTL |

**e** = (*e*_{1}, *e*_{2}*,…*, *e*_{n}) | Standard errors of the effect sizes of the QTL |