Table 2 Expected offspring phenotype under random cross-fostering
Offspring genotype
A1A1A1A2A2A2Maternal litter average
Foster mother genotype
 A1A1+am +ao Embedded Image+am +do Embedded Image+am –ao Embedded Image+am + ao(p1p2) + 2p1p2do
 A1A2+dm +ao Embedded Image+dm +do Embedded Image+dm –ao Embedded Image+dm + ao(p1p2) + 2p1p2do
 A2A2–am +ao Embedded Image–am +do Embedded Image–am –ao Embedded Image–am + ao(p1p2) + 2p1p2do
Offspring average+ao + am(p1p2) + 2p1p2dm+do + am(p1p2) + 2p1p2dm–ao + am(p1p2) + 2p1p2dm
  • Each cell gives the direct (subscripted “o”) and maternal (subscripted “m”) effects that contribute to the phenotype of an offspring as a function of the genotype of the offspring and their foster mother. The expected phenotypes of the offspring of each foster mother genotype are given as row means and the average phenotype of each offspring genotype is given by the column means. The frequencies of each foster mother–offspring genotype combination under random cross-fostering are shown in parentheses below the effects.