Table 1  Symbols used in this article
TypeSymbolExplanation
DimensionsEmbedded ImageNo. of local populations
nXNo. of individuals in population X
Embedded ImageNo. of traits
nNo. of loci
Coancestry coefficientsMatrix θ, with elements θiiCoancestry coefficient = probability that randomly chosen alleles for individuals i and i′ are identical by descent for a neutral locus
Matrix Embedded Image, with elements Embedded ImagePopulation-to-population coancestry
Embedded ImageAverage population-to-population coancestry
Embedded ImageWithin-population coancestry
Embedded ImageAverage within-population coancestry
Embedded ImageAverage self-coancestry in population X
Embedded ImageAverage self-coancestry
Distribution of allelesxijkuIndicator function for the allele k in locus j of individual i being of the allelic type u
pjuThe frequency of allele u in locus j in the ancestral population
Genetic valuesvjumAdditive value of allele u in locus j for trait m
Embedded ImageAdditive value of trait m for individual i
aiVector of additive values (of all traits) for individual i
Embedded ImageMean additive value in population X
Embedded ImageMean additive value
Genetic variance–covariance matricesEmbedded ImageMatrix of genetic variances and covariances in the ancestral population
GXMatrix of genetic variances and covariances in population X
Embedded ImageMatrix of genetic variances and covariances among populations