Table 1  Reported instances of successful ZFN-induced gene targeting
OrganismLatin nameMethodTMTGRReferences
Fruit flyDrosophila melanogasterHeat-shock induction++Bibikova et al. (2002, 2003), Beumer et al. (2006)
Embryo injection++Beumer et al. (2008)
NematodeC. elegansGonad injection+Morton et al. (2006)
SilkwormBombyx moriEmbryo injection+Takasu et al. (2010)
ZebrafishDanio rerioZygote injection+Meng et al. (2008), Doyon et al. (2008), Foley et al. (2009)
Sea urchinHemicentrotus pulcherrimusEmbryo injection+Ochiai et al. (2010)
FrogXenopus tropicalisEmbryo injection+Young et al. (2011)
RatRattus norvegicusZygote injection++Geurts et al. (2009), Mashimo et al. (2010)
MouseMus musculusZygote injection++Meyer et al. (2010), Carbery et al. (2010), Cui et al. (2011)
CressA. thalianaAgrobacterium+Carbery et al. (2010), Cui et al. (2011), Lloyd et al. (2005), Zhang et al. (2010), Osakabe et al. (2010), De Pater et al. (2009)
TobaccoNicotiana sp.Protoplasts++Wright et al. (2005), Townsend et al. (2009)
Agrobacterium++Cai et al. (2009)
Viral delivery+Marton et al. (2010)
MaizeZea maysCell culture++Shukla et al. (2009)
PetuniaPetunia sp.Viral delivery+Marton et al. (2010)
Mammalian cells in culture
HumanHomo sapiensDNA transformation++Porteus and Baltimore (2003), Urnov et al. (2005), Alwin et al. (2005), Perez et al. (2008), Hockemeyer et al. (2009), Kim et al. (2009), Zou et al. (2009), Dekelver et al. (2010)
Viral delivery++Lombardo et al. (2007)
MouseM. musculusDNA transformation++Goldberg et al. (2010), Connelly et al. (2010)
HamsterCricetulus griseusDNA transformation++Santiago et al. (2008), Liu et al. (2010), Cost et al. (2010)
PigSus domesticaDNA transformation+Watanabe et al. (2010)
  • TM refers to targeted mutagenesis by nonhomologous end joining TGR is targeted gene replacement by homologous recombination. In addition to the examples shown here, I have heard reliable, but unpublished, reports of successful ZFN-induced targeting in several other organisms. The list of references is not exhaustive, but provides guidance to key publications.