TABLE 1

Marker proteins used for immunoassays

ProteinFeature marked
PLZFUndifferentiated type A spermatogonia
CBX/HP1βType B spermatogonia
γH2AXDSBs (leptotene-zygotene); XY body (pachytene)
SYCP3Synaptonemal complex (leptotene-metaphase I)
ATRXY body (pachytene); unrepaired DSBs on unsynapsed autosomes (pachytene)
XLRXY body (pachytene)
H1tMid-to-late pachytene
RAD51Early recombination nodules on DSBs (leptotene-pachytene)
MLH1Late recombination nodules on DSBs (mid-to-late pachytene)