TABLE 3

Average genetic parameters for fitness in the base populations

ModelkMeanaMeanbVG × 103% VA% VD% VID × 106Z
I10.9140.9145.9731.7868.2200.41.35
20.9150.9155.7532.4567.510.051.21.21
40.9170.9175.9929.9169.860.22−5.9*1.11
II00.8210.8426.3436.8261.951.23−1.90.49*
0.50.8220.8406.3337.9561.920.130.31.09
10.8220.8416.9134.7265.2806.10.94
20.8240.8436.4536.6162.840.55−3.50.98
40.8220.8407.3532.7162.534.76−4.60.90
III10.3810.45712.0565.6134.3904.01.06
20.3820.45712.2564.3235.130.555.51.14*
40.3830.45313.1260.8635.413.74−1.91.03
  • Mean, genetic variance (VG), additive (VA), dominance (VD), and epistatic (VI) components of variance (expressed as percentages of VG), and linkage disequilibrium (D or Z), for the different models and types of gene action (k = 1, no epistasis; k = 0, strong antagonistic epistasis; k = 0.5, moderate antagonistic epistasis; k = 2, moderate synergistic epistasis; k = 4, strong synergistic epistasis) are shown. *Significance (P < 0.001) shown for D or Z only.

  • a Fitness mean relative to that of a genotype carrying none of the deleterious mutations that occurred. It includes the fitness decline from deleterious fixation.

  • b Fitness mean relative to that of a genotype carrying none of the segregating deleterious mutations.