TABLE 6

Chromosomal rearrangement rates for four representative species across all Muller elements

SpeciesMuller AMuller BMuller CMuller DMuller E
D. willistoni0.127770.100450.086040.059160.102480.070070.084680.066370.098270.08645
D. virilis0.112590.076190.080080.062080.093880.069500.072070.062440.089200.07010
D. mojavensis0.113320.077720.077220.052390.097020.073080.072410.061380.092620.07565
D. grimshawi0.119110.098970.079360.066010.097810.084200.072760.068600.092620.07488
  • All rates are calculated with respect to D. melanogaster as the reference species. Rates shown are calculated using divergence estimates (Tamura et al. 2004) of 62.2 MY and 62.9 MY, respectively, for D. willistoni and the subgenus Sophophora species with respect to D. melanogaster. The first number for each element uses the D. melanogaster chromosome size to estimate the rate and the second number uses the size for each species based on the genome assembly (similar to Table 5). We observe chromosomal evolution rates for Muller A (D. melanogaster chromosome X) to be consistently higher compared to other Muller elements.