TABLE 5

Chromosomal rearrangement rates across various Drosophilids for Muller element E

SpeciesNo. synteny blocksChr. (kb) D. mel, speciesDivergence A, B (MY)A: estimated rearrangement rate (disruptions/Mb/MY)B: estimated rearrangement rate (disruptions/Mb/MY)
D. sechellia1227,894, 27,6915.4, 2.30.039830.040130.093520.09421
D. simulans1827,894, 27,5195.4, 2.30.059750.060560.140280.14219
D. yakuba2327,894, 28,83412.6, 6.10.032720.031650.067590.06538
D. erecta1127,894, 28,22112.6, 6.10.015650.015470.032320.03195
D. ananassae18327,894, 33,16744.2, 200.074210.062420.164010.13794
D. pseudoobscura21827,894, 30,79454.9, 24.30.071180.064470.156930.14215
D. persimilis22427,894, 31,65554.9, 24.30.073140.064450.161250.14209
D. willistoni34127,894, 31,70862.2, 36.30.098270.086450.168390.14813
D. virilis31327,894, 35,49562.9, 39.20.089200.070100.143130.11248
D. mojavensis32527,894, 34,14862.9, 39.20.092620.075650.148610.12140
D. grimshawi32527,894, 34,50362.9, 39.20.092620.074880.148610.12015
  • All rates were calculated using D. melanogaster as the reference species. Synteny blocks with respect to D. melanogaster (D. mel) are used to estimate a lower bound for the number of chromosomal disruptions on Muller element E. Rates are calculated using two estimates for chromosome sizes (one for D. melanogaster and the other for each individual species based on scaffolds mapped to that chromosome) (Schaeffer et al. 2008) and two estimates for species divergence times: A (Tamura et al. 2004) and B (Russo et al. 1995). For each divergence time estimate (A, B), two sets of rates are shown, first using the D. melanogaster chromosome size and then second using the species' estimated chromosome size.