TABLE 1

Mixed-model methods used for association mapping and the corresponding statistical models for the two-stage association approaches analyzed in this study

MethodStatistical modelPopulation structure matrix DKinship matrix K
QKSTRUCTURESPAGeDi
PKFirst eight principal componentsSPAGeDi
KSPAGeDi
GPedigree information
Kunrel
QK0.70STRUCTURE
PK0.70First eight principal componentsT = 0.70
K0.70T = 0.70
K0.35T = 0.35
• For a detailed definition of the statistical models and description of the different methods see materials and methods.