TABLE 1

Mixed-model methods used for association mapping and the corresponding statistical models for the two-stage association approaches analyzed in this study

MethodStatistical modelPopulation structure matrix DKinship matrix K
QKEmbedded ImageSTRUCTURESPAGeDi
PKEmbedded ImageFirst eight principal componentsSPAGeDi
KEmbedded ImageSPAGeDi
GEmbedded ImagePedigree information
KunrelEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
QK0.70Embedded ImageSTRUCTUREEmbedded Image
PK0.70Embedded ImageFirst eight principal componentsT = 0.70
K0.70Embedded ImageT = 0.70
K0.35Embedded ImageT = 0.35
  • For a detailed definition of the statistical models and description of the different methods see materials and methods.