TABLE 5

Features of QTL for grain yield, heading date, and plant height based on the averaged data of 16 environments

CIM QTL analysisMIM QTL analysis
TraitQTLFlanking markersLODPeak position (cM)R2 (%)EffectaLOD-1 support interval (cM)Peak position (cM)R2 (%)Effect
Grain yieldQYld.idw-2BbXgwm1027Xwmc3618.915515.60.55147–16115521.50.69
QYld.idw-3BbXbarc133Xgwm49310.0815.3−0.552–13813.8−0.52
QYld.idw-7BXgwm569Xbarc10053.004.10.290–1003.20.26
Q.idw-2B × Q.idw-3B14.00.57
Multiple R252.5
Heading dateQHd.idw-2A.2bXwmc177Xcfa220121.44632.20.944–484532.70.9
QHd.idw-2B.2cXgwm1300Xwmc3327.3959.20.591–1039311.50.5
QHd.idw-7BbXgwm569Xbarc10059.92517.8−0.719–332517.8−0.7
Multiple R262.0
Plant heightQPht.idw-1B.1cXbarc119Xgwm4137.1418.70.940–45429.10.9
QPht.idw-2BbXgwm1027Xwmc3615.41497.40.9136–15714810.61.1
QPht.idw-3AcXgwm1159Xgwm104.8735.6−0.768–88745.2−0.8
QPht.idw-3BbXbarc133Xgwm49310.31014.2−1.28–171015.7−1.3
QPht.idw-7AcXcfa2028Xbarc1744.4787.30.968–90786.60.8
Q.idw-2B × Q.idw-3B10.01.1
Multiple R257.3
  • QTL for grain yield, heading date, and plant height were identified from the averaged data of 16 environments using the CIM (LOD > 2.5) and MIM analyses. For each QTL, the flanking markers, the peak LOD score, the chromosome position of the LOD peak, the R2 value, the additive effect, and the (LOD-1) QTL supporting interval from the CIM analysis are reported. For each QTL, the chromosome position of the LOD peak, the R2 value, and the additive effect from the MIM analysis are also reported. The significant epistatic interactions between QTL and the corresponding additive × additive effect as estimated in the MIM analysis are indicated in italics.

  • a Additive effect for grain yield (q ha−1), heading date (days), and plant height (cm) computed as half of the difference between the mean phenotypic values of the RILs homozygous for the Svevo and Kofa alleles [(Svevo − Kofa)/2].

  • b QTL influencing more than one trait in a range of environments.

  • c Trait-specific QTL present in a range of environments.