TABLE 2

Models for the VCOV structure

ModelEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageDescription
IDEmbedded Image01Identical (residual) genetic variation
CSEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image2Compound symmetry
DGEmbedded Image0JHeterogeneous (residual) genetic variation
UCHEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageUniform covariance, heterogeneous variance
FA1Embedded ImageEmbedded Image2JFirst-order factor analytic model
FA2Embedded ImageEmbedded Image3J−1Second-order factor analytic model (Embedded Image)
UNEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageUnstructured model
  • For a further explanation see text.