TABLE 8

Literature review of studies on differentiating additivity and nonadditivity in gene expression

OrganismDivergence time (generations)ReferenceMethodOne dye vs. two dyesInbreeding statusTissue complexityAdditivity vs. nonadditivity
Studies consistent with additivity predominant
DrosophilaWithin speciesHughes et al. (2006)Affymetrix microarrayOne dyeOutbredWhole flyAdditivity ≫ nonadditivity
MaizeWithin speciesStupar and Springer (2006)Affymetrix microarrayOne dyeHighWhole plantAdditivity ≫ nonadditivity
MaizeWithin speciesSwanson-Wagner et al. (2006)cDNA microarrayTwo dyesHighAll above-ground tissuesAdditivity ≫ nonadditivity
M. musculus lab strainsWithin speciesCui et al. (2006)Affymetrix microarrayOne dyeHighSingle tissueAdditivity ≫ nonadditivity
M. musculus wild strains2–3 millionaThis studyAffymetrix microarrayOne dyePartiallySingle tissueAdditivity ≫ nonadditivity
D. melanogaster vs. D. simulans12.534 millionbRanz et al. (2004)cDNA microarrayTwo dyesHighHeadAdditivity > nonadditivity
D. simulans vs. D. mauritiana2.58 millionbMichalak and Noor (2003)Affymetrix microarrayOne dyeHighWhole flyNonadditivity small
D. persimilis vs. D. pseudoobscura2.55 millionbReiland and Noor (2002)Differential display PCRNo dyeHighWhole flyNonadditivity small
Studies consistent with nonadditivity predominant
DrosophilaWithin speciesGibson et al. (2004)Agilent microarrayTwo dyesHighWhole flyNonadditivity > additivity
ArabidopsisWithin speciesVuylsteke et al. (2005)cDNA microarrayTwo dyesHighFirst leaf pairAdditivity = nonadditivity
OysterWithin speciesHedgecock et al. (2007)Massive parallel signature sequencingNo dyePartially (f = 0.375)1–2 million larvaeNonadditivity ≫ additivity
D. melanogaster vs. D. simulans12.534 millionbRanz et al. (2004)cDNA microarrayTwo dyesHighBodyNonadditivity > additivity
  • Underlining indicates studies that have less rigorously investigated the topic of additivity/nonadditivity.

  • a Assuming two to three generations/year (Karn et al. 2002).

  • b Assuming 5–10 generations/year (Hey and Kliman 1993).