TABLE 1

Notation used

P, μ, Am, AvPhenotype, mean, breeding values for mean and environmental variance
χ, MSStandard normal deviate, Mendelian sampling term
Embedded Image, Embedded Image, Embedded Image, CGenetic variance in mean and environmental variance, genetic correlation between Embedded Image and Embedded Image, genetic variance–covariance matrix
Embedded Image, Embedded ImageMean environmental and phenotypic variances
Embedded Image, Embedded Image, Embedded ImageMean P, P2, and P3 of selected animals
Embedded Image, Embedded Image, Embedded Image, nMean phenotype of relatives, mean phenotype squared, mean squared phenotype of relatives, number of relatives
Embedded Image, Embedded ImageWithin-family variance, log-transformed within-family variance
Embedded Image, Embedded ImageAdditive genetic relationships between animal j and the group of relatives and between animals within the group of relatives
a, xVectors of breeding values Embedded Image and Embedded Image and of phenotypic information
P, G, Embedded Image, Embedded ImageVariance–covariance matrix of x, covariance matrix between x and a, vectors with Embedded Image
Embedded Image, Embedded Image, LP- and G-matrices with Embedded Image, scalar matrix
B, Embedded Image, Embedded ImageMatrix with regression coefficients, vectors with Embedded Image
i, x, p, zSelection intensity, truncation point, selected proportion, ordinate of standard normal distribution
Embedded Image, Embedded Image, Embedded ImageResponse in Embedded Image and Embedded Image, accuracy of Embedded Image
Embedded Image, Embedded Image, Embedded ImageHeritability of mean and environmental variance, evolvability of environmental variance
Embedded Image, Embedded Image, Embedded ImageEnvironmental variance, breeding value for environmental variance, and genetic variance in environmental variance for the exponential genetic model