TABLE 2

Ablation of C. remanei male structures that affect inactivity in females

AblationGross mating defectsaNo. of males that induced female paralysis
NoneNone10/10
M cell in L1 males. Removed: sex muscles, M-derived coelomocytes, M-derived body-wall muscles.Inconsistent ventral turns. No spicule insertion.9/10
P9.p and P10.p in early L3. Removed: hook structural cells, HOA, HOB, and PVZ.Males passed over the vulva four or more times before stopping at the vulva; 6/10 inserted their spicules and ejaculated.9/10 (5/10 when they transiently passed over the vulva; 4/10 when they inserted their spicules).
Y.prppd(l/r), Y.prpa(l/r), and B.a(l/r)paaa in late L4. Removed: PCA, PCB, and PCC neurons.Males could not position their cloaca over the vulval slit; 2/10 males inserted their spicules, but did not ejaculate.7/10 (5/10 when they transiently passed over the vulva; 2/10 when they inserted their spicules).
B.a(l/r)paap in late L4. Removed the SPC neurons.Ten of 11 males inserted their spicules; only 1/10 transferred sperm.10/11
Y.prppd(l/r), Y.prpa(l/r), B.a(l/r)paaa, and B.a(l/r)paap in late L4. Removed: PCA, PCB, PCC, and SPC.Males could not position their cloaca over the vulval slit, insert spicules, or transfer sperm.0/10
Z1, Z2, Z3, and Z4 in early L1. Removed: somatic gonad and germline.Males behaved like PCA-, PCB-, PCC-, and SPC-ablated males.0/10
Z2 and Z3 in early L1. Removed the germline.Males transferred spermless seminal fluid and deposited a copulatory plug.9/10
Linker cell in mid-L4. Somatic gonad does not connect to proctodeum.Males behaved like PCA-, PCB-, PCC-, and SPC-ablated males.0/10
  • a Observations were cursory.