TABLE 1

Validation of statistical methodology

Simulated valuesaEstimatesb
Embedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
0.3330.033−0.50.297 (0.005)0.034 (0.001)−0.499 (0.015)
0.3330.0330.00.296 (0.005)0.035 (0.001)−0.007 (0.018)
0.3330.033+0.50.296 (0.005)0.035 (0.002)0.493 (0.014)
0.3330.100−0.50.297 (0.004)0.100 (0.002)−0.504 (0.011)
0.3330.1000.00.296 (0.004)0.100 (0.002)−0.007 (0.013)
0.3330.100+0.50.297 (0.005)0.101 (0.002)0.492 (0.010)
0.1110.011−0.50.297 (0.004)0.012 (0.001)−0.495 (0.016)
0.1110.0110.00.296 (0.004)0.011 (0.001)−0.016 (0.020)
0.1110.011+0.50.297 (0.004)0.012 (0.001)0.496 (0.022)
0.1110.033−0.50.298 (0.005)0.034 (0.001)−0.503 (0.010)
0.1110.0330.00.296 (0.004)0.033 (0.001)−0.010 (0.014)
0.1110.033+0.50.297 (0.004)0.033 (0.001)0.486 (0.011)
  • a Simulated populations consisted of 250 sires, 500 dams, and data on 20 offspring per dam. Individuals were kept in 2500 groups of four individuals each. Simulated genetic parameters were: Embedded Image, Embedded Image; Embedded Image was either 33 or 11% of Embedded Image, representing large or small associative effects; Embedded Image was either 10 or 30% of Embedded Image, representing low or high heritability of associative effects; the genetic correlation between DBV and SBV (Embedded Image) was −0.5, 0, or +0.5 and the nongenetic correlation (Embedded Image) equaled the genetic correlation. Fifty replicates were simulated for each population structure and five generations of pedigree were included in the calculation of the relationship matrix (A).

  • b Estimates are the REML estimates using Equations 4 and 5 as a model; standard errors of the means are in brackets. Hats (^) denote estimated values.