Notation key

i, jSubscripts to denote an individual
Pi, Embedded ImageObserved individual trait value, selection response
PD,i, PSPhenotypic direct and associative effect
AD,i, AS,iDirect and associative breeding value (DBV, SBV)
TBVTotal breeding value, TBVi = AD,i + (n − 1)AS,i
CiValue of selection criterion for individual i
g, nWeight on group in Ci, group size
Embedded Image, Embedded Image, Embedded ImageVariances and covariance of DBV and SBV
Embedded ImageSelection intensity, standard deviation of C
f, rTotal kinship and relatedness among associates, r = 2f
Embedded ImageInbreeding level in subdivided population, kinship relative to deme