TABLE 2

Group composition in Structure outputs with best goodness-of-fit, depending on the number of groups (Groups) for the three panels (landraces and first-cycle inbred panel and whole inbred panel)

GroupsLandracesGMCFstFirst-cycle inbred panelGMCFstWhole inbred panelGMCFst
2Flinta0.4360.025Flinta0.4770.115Flinta0.4280.027
Other material0.5640.095All other material0.5230.019All other material0.5720.116
3Northern Flintb0.2780.127Northern Flintb0.2540.166Flintb0.2960.148
European Flintc0.2570.094European Flintc0.2510.134Corn Belt Dent0.4750.119
Other material0.4640.027All other material0.4960.031Tropicalde0.2280.012
4Northern Flintb0.2440.136Northern Flintb0.2450.191Flinta0.2920.160
European Flintc0.2450.101European Flintc0.2330.140Tropicalde0.2140.024
Other Tropical originsf0.2780.069Tropicalde0.1980.000Corn Belt Dent0.4480.110
Corn Belt Dent and Mexican0.2380.012Corn Belt Dent0.3240.092Stiff Stalkg0.0460.424
5Northern Flintb0.2030.175Northern Flintb0.2440.205European Flintc0.1710.183
European Flintc0.2230.112European Flintc0.2370.147Northern Flintb0.1360.217
Mexicane0.1800.021Tropicalde0.1600.000Corn Belt Dent0.4380.113
Other tropical originsef0.2490.077Corn Belt Dent0.3260.097Tropicalde0.2010.031
Corn Belt Dent0.1450.088Popcorn0.0330.274Stiff Stalkg0.0540.426
6Northern Flintb0.1980.188Northern Flintb0.2370.211Flinta0.2900.163
European Flintc0.2070.122European Flintc0.2360.149Tropicalde0.1940.035
Mexicane0.1630.021Tropicalde0.1510.000Corn Belt Dent0.3550.119
Caribbeane0.1730.092Corn Belt Dent0.2590.096Stiff Stalkg0.0520.424
Andean0.1220.118Popcorn0.0330.277M13And RYDh0.0450.301
Corn Belt Dent0.1370.098M13And RYDh0.0760.217B37 related and Popcorn0.0650.186
7Northern Flintb0.2010.192Northern Flintb0.2050.239Northern Flintb0.1340.217
Pyrenees-Galicia Flinti0.1440.142European Flintc0.2290.161European Flintc0.1130.178
Italian Flint0.1060.141Tropicalde0.0870.117Tropicalde0.1940.037
Mexicane0.1570.024Corn Belt Dent0.3240.111Corn Belt Dent0.3890.120
Caribbeane0.1680.097Popcorn0.0320.306Stiff Stalkg0.0550.428
Andean0.0950.138Pa374, CQ191, KUI21, A6j0.0850.000M13 and RYDh0.0440.311
Corn Belt Dent0.1270.101NY302,NY303,SV77,SV79j0.0390.260Lacaunek0.0710.328
8Northern Flintb0.2050.199Northern Flintb0.1980.240Flinta0.2270.173
Pyrenees-Galicia Flinti0.1360.158European Flintc0.2270.162Tropicalde0.1500.101
Italian Flint0.1030.152Tropicalde0.0880.108Corn Belt Dent0.3540.146
Mexicane0.1680.044Corn Belt Dent0.2790.104Stiff Stalkg0.0520.451
Caribbeane0.1640.108Popcorn0.0310.302Southern Dent0.0700.000
Andean0.0810.156Pa374, CQ191, KUI21, A6j0.0910.001Lacaunek0.0720.354
Corn Belt Dent0.1100.120NY302&303, SV77, SV79j0.0410.258M13 and RYDh0.0440.332
Four Landraceslj0.0260.175M13And RYDh0.0450.278Lancaster (Mo17 related)0.0310.392
  • Each Structure group is designated from the origin of the material with a high genome proportion attributed to this group (gij > 0.80). When a group does not correspond to a unique genetic origin, its composition is detailed in footnotes. Group mean contribution (GMC) indicates the mean proportion of the genome originating from this group, over all individuals. Fst, analogous to Wright's Fst that measures divergence from ancestral genetic pool. Italics, group number showing optimal goodness-of-fit; underlines, reference output.

  • a Including Flint from both northern America, northern Europe, and southern Europe, except southern Spain.

  • b Northern Flint from both northern America and northern Europe.

  • c From southern France, Italy and northern Spain.

  • d Including all tropical origins and southern Spanish.

  • e Includes southern Spanish material.

  • f From Andean, Caribbean, southern America and some southern Spanish.

  • g Related toB14, CM105 and CM174.

  • h Minnesota 13 and Reid Yellow Dent, including Wf9, A3, SDP254 and, for whole inbred panel, W117.

  • i French Pyrenees and northern Spain (Galicia).

  • j Group including miscellaneous material.

  • k Originating from Lacaune landraces like F2 and F7.

  • l BlancoDe Ricote (Spain), Gourdseed Dent (US), Manolovo (Bulgaria), Stara Zagora (Bulgaria).