TABLE 1

Sample details

Ageb (YBP)Specimen typecSequence datafSequence regiong
Sample nameaEnvironmentdSpeciesemtDNANuDNAmtDNANuDNA
Mp-Wrangel4590 ± 50BonePermafrostMammuthus primigenius4/55614/1596cyt bMicro-satellites
Mp-Alaska846013,775 ± 145ToothPermafrostMammuthus primigenius14/2098i131/7252cyt bvWf,a2ab,irib, numt, micro- satellite
Mp-Siberia26,000 ± 1600BonePermafrostMammuthus primigenius4/55610/1140cyt bMicro-satellites
SC740060–70,000hToothTemperate caveC. antiquitatis43/7463i4/680cyt bNumt
SC8120540–45,000hToothTemperate caveC. antiquitatis10/1820i9/126012SNumt
PIN 3342-103>49000BonePermafrostC. antiquitatis47/11697i12/355212S, cyt bjNumt
PIN 3100-16943700 ± 1000BonePermafrostC. antiquitatis6/38423/83712SjNumt
Ua1183519875 ± 215CropoliteVarm caveNothrotheriops shastensis76/6671115/681312S28S,vW, Crem, PCLB4
RB9112,450 ± 60BonePermafrostP. leospelaea10/14405/720atp8Numt
RB7512,090 ± 80BonePermafrostP. leospelaea16/23042/288atp8Numt
RB42>50,600BonePermafrostP. leospelaea9/12969/1296atp8Numt
RB4454,100 ± 1800BonePermafrostP. leospelaea8/115224/3456atp8Numt
RB4146,200 ± 1500BonePermafrostP. leospelaea9/12963/432atp8Numt
RB46>61,500BonePermafrostP. leospelaea7/100814/2016atp8Numt
GL9291BoneMuseumS. scrofa8/17126/1038D-loopCD45
GL7186BoneMuseumS. scrofa7/14938/1384D-loopCD45
GL5546BoneMuseumS. scrofa6/1284i6/1038D-loopCD45
GL4598BoneMuseumS. scrofa6/12847/1211D-loopCD45
GL7650BoneMuseumS. scrofa8/17128/1384D-loopCD45
Moa716700–5000hBoneTemperate caveD. robustus15/303115/615D-loopKw1,j adh
Moa237700–5000BoneTemperate caveD. robustus15/303116/656D-loopKw1, adh
Moa660613 ± 90BoneTemperate caveD. robustus14/282815/615iD-loopKw1, adh
Moa7991–3000hBoneDry swampD. robustus16/323232/2138D-loopKw1,j adh
  • YBP, years before present.

  • a Data sources: Moa716, Moa237, Moa660, and Moa799 are from Bunce et al. (2003) and data generated in this study; Mp-Wrangel, Mp-Sibiria, and MP-Alaska8460 are from Greenwood et al. (1999, 2001) and data generated in this study; Ua11835 is from Poinar et al. (1998, 2003); SC81205 and SC7400 are from Orlando et al. (2003); GL92, GL71, GL55, GL45, and GL76 are from Larson et al. (2005) and this study; RB41, RB42, RB44, RB46, RB75, and RB91 are from this study; PIN3342-103 and PIN3100-169 are also from this study.

  • b Age of specimen based on museum records, accelerator mass spectrometer dating, or on stratigraphy.

  • c Type of specimen.

  • d Type of original preservation environment.

  • e Species name of specimen.

  • f Sampling effort. The numbers of mitochondrial or nuclear clones/the total length of the sequences in base pairs. The average number of clones is very similar for mtDNA (16; SD 17) and nuDNA (20; SD 33).

  • g Name of the mitochondrial and nuclear sequences studied.

  • h Age of specimen based on stratigraphy.

  • i Results were independently replicated.

  • j Results were quantified by real time PCR.