TABLE 3

Increase of codon volatility by frequency-dependent selection for nonsynonymous mutations

NaubscTdStarting volatilityeEnding volatilityfPgπhkiIncreasejDecreasekRatiolPm
 100.00010.0025,0000.7466 ± 0.00120.7463 ± 0.0012NS0.002 1.02385938261.009NS
 100.00010.1025,0000.7475 ± 0.00120.7461 ± 0.0012NS0.002 1.02385139170.983NS
 100.00010.5025,0000.7507 ± 0.00120.7522 ± 0.0012NS0.011 1.07399939211.020NS
 100.00010.9925,0000.7484 ± 0.00120.7551 ± 0.0011<0.00010.102 1.54448939461.138<0.0001
 100.00100.10 5,0000.7465 ± 0.00120.7483 ± 0.0012NS0.023 1.19401038931.030NS
 100.00100.50 5,0000.7451 ± 0.00120.7520 ± 0.0011<0.00010.073 1.47428539901.0740.0006
 100.00100.99 5,0000.7462 ± 0.00120.7583 ± 0.0009<0.00010.235 2.10486941691.168<0.0001
 100.01000.10 1,0000.7475 ± 0.00120.7487 ± 0.0010NS0.172 2.35445544680.997NS
 100.01000.50 1,0000.7474 ± 0.00120.7554 ± 0.0009<0.00010.278 2.83487644341.100<0.0001
 100.01000.99 1,0000.7471 ± 0.00120.7618 ± 0.0008<0.00010.367 3.20525743091.220<0.0001
1000.00010.1025,0000.7472 ± 0.00120.7581 ± 0.0010<0.00010.189 2.22486542701.139<0.0001
1000.00010.5025,0000.7448 ± 0.00120.7617 ± 0.0007<0.00010.426 4.05557242431.313<0.0001
1000.00010.9925,0000.7468 ± 0.00120.7725 ± 0.0006<0.00010.504 5.25582341381.407<0.0001
1000.00100.10 5,0000.7463 ± 0.00120.7606 ± 0.0008<0.00010.348 4.62540344271.220<0.0001
1000.00100.50 5,0000.7490 ± 0.00120.7708 ± 0.0006<0.00010.516 6.60571642581.342<0.0001
1000.00100.99 5,0000.7488 ± 0.00120.7748 ± 0.0005<0.00010.575 8.02585741371.416<0.0001
1000.01000.10 1,0000.7485 ± 0.00120.7549 ± 0.0005<0.00010.58514.91554844491.247<0.0001
1000.01000.50 1,0000.7459 ± 0.00120.7674 ± 0.0004<0.00010.63916.60590840921.444<0.0001
1000.01000.99 1,0000.7464 ± 0.00120.7738 ± 0.0003<0.00010.66217.70594940481.470<0.0001
  • a Population size.

  • b Mutation rate per site per generation.

  • c Selection coefficient as defined in the main text.

  • d Number of generations of evolution.

  • e Population volatility or the average volatility of all individuals in the population. The mean population volatility and its standard error at the beginning of the simulation are shown.

  • f The mean population volatility and its standard error at the end of simulation.

  • g The probability that the mean starting and ending volatilities are identical (one-tail Z-test).

  • h Mean nucleotide diversity per site at the end of evolution.

  • i Mean number of alleles in the population at the end of evolution.

  • j Number of cases (of 10,000 replications) in which the ending population volatility exceeds the starting population volatility.

  • k Number of cases (of 10,000 replications) in which the ending population volatility is lower than the starting population volatility.

  • l The ratio of the number of increase cases to the number of decrease cases.

  • m The probability that the ratio is 1 (one-tail binomial test).

  • NS, not significant.