TABLE 1

Quantitative genetic statistics of plasticity and GEI for 13 inflorescence development traits measured in short-day (10-hr) and long-day (14-hr) photoperiods

Trait[VG]aPhotoperiodb[VG×E]cVG×E partitionedd[rge] e
Ler × Col RI lines
Length of reproductive phase of main axis (days)0.584** ** 0.213**(0.89, 0.11)0.75 (0.65, 0.83)
Time to maturity of main axis (days)3.103** ** 2.503**(0.51, 0.49)0.71 (0.59, 0.80)
Rosette leaves at bolting1.428** ** 0.468**(0.97, 0.03)0.76 (0.66, 0.83)
Rosette diameter (cm)0.010** ** 0.001NS0.88 (0.82, 0.92)
Plant height (cm)9.400** ** 0.555**(0.30, 0.70)0.98 (0.97, 0.99)
Main inflorescence fruits1.421** ** 0.159NS0.93 (0.89, 0.95)
Axillary fruits1.499** ** 0.891*(0.92, 0.08)0.74 (0.63, 0.82)
Nonelongated secondary meristems0.178** ** 0.075**(1.00, 0.00)0.70 (0.58, 0.79)
Elongated axils0.119** ns 0.057**(0.88, 0.12)0.70 (0.59, 0.79)
Secondary inflorescence meristems on main axis0.073** ** 0.088**(0.99, 0.01)0.45 (0.28, 0.60)
Early flowers1.179** ** 0.810**(0.25, 0.75)0.85 (0.79, 0.90)
Total fruits4.197** ** 0.569NS0.96 (0.95, 0.98)
Cvi × Ler RI lines
Bolting time (days)25.624** ** 6.767**(0, 1.00)1.02 (undefined)
Length of reproductive phase of main axis (days)5.280** ** 4.834**(0.84, 0.16)0.58 (0.47, 0.67)
Time to maturity of main axis (days)42.459** ** 18.857**(0.24, 0.76)0.93 (0.90, 0.95)
Rosette leaves at bolting4.177** ** 1.803**(0.16, 0.84)0.95 (0.93, 0.96)
Rosette diameter (cm)0.032** ** 0.003NS0.94 (0.92, 0.96)
Plant height (cm)12.353** ** 1.159**(0.99, 0.01)0.91 (0.88, 0.93)
Main inflorescence fruits5.106** ** 2.710**(0.93, 0.07)0.66 (0.56, 0.74)
Axillary fruits2.580** ** 10.136**(0.84, 0.16)0.25 (0.10, 0.39)
Nonelongated secondary meristems0.171** ** 0.134**(0.93, 0.07)0.61 (0.50, 0.70)
Elongated axils0.070** ** 0.396**(0.75, 0.25)–0.30 (– 0.43, – 0.15)
Secondary inflorescence meristems on main axis0.322** ** 0.215**(0.61, 0.39)0.73 (0.64, 0.79)
Early flowers1.511** ** 0.178**(0.97, 0.03)0.90 (0.86, 0.92)
Total fruits14.216** ** 18.793**(0.99, 0.01)0.44 (0.30, 0.55)

NS, not significant

  • * P ≤ 0.05

  • ** P ≤ 0.0001.

  • a Among-line variance component from full-ANOVA model; significance indicates genetic differences among RI lines.

  • b Fixed effect of photoperiod from full-ANOVA model; significance indicates plasticity for photoperiod.

  • c RI line by photoperiod interaction variance component from full-ANOVA model; significant interaction indicates genotype × environment interaction (GEI).

  • d Proportion of VG×E attributable to the departure of the cross-environment genetic correlation from unity (first term) and to changes in among-line variance in different photoperiod environments (second term).

  • e Cross-environment genetic correlation calculated as covE1E2E1σE2; parentheses indicate 95% confidence intervals.