TABLE A1

Single-locus cases segregating n equally frequent alleles

Probability of identity-in-stateMaximum-likelihood estimates
True relatednessSegregating alleles (n)
Identity-in-state modeNo. of allelic combinationsΔ7 = 1Δ8 = 1Δ9 = 1234≥5
Embedded Image nEmbedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Embedded Image n(n - 1)00Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Embedded Image n(n - 1)0Embedded Image Embedded Image 8, Δ9}Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Embedded Image ½n(n - 1)(n - 2)00Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Embedded Image n(n - 1)0Embedded Image Embedded Image 8, Δ9}Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Embedded Image ½n(n - 1)(n - 2)00Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Embedded Image ½n(n - 1)Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Embedded Image n(n - 1)(n - 2)0Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image 8, Δ9}Embedded Image
Embedded Image ¼n(n - 1)(n - 2)(n - 3)00Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
  • The number of different combinations for each identity-in-state mode are given, together with the total probability of observing all such patterns given true relatedness corresponding to monozygotic twins (Δ7 = 1), parent-offspring (Δ8 = 1), and unrelated individuals (Δ9 = 1). The final columns list the maximum-likelihood estimates obtained for each possible identity-in-state mode given observations on a single locus and n equally frequent alleles segregating in the population. Cases designated by {Δ8, Δ9} correspond to situations in which the estimate is indeterminant and any linear combination of the two maximizes the likelihood.