TABLE 2

Maximum-likelihood (ML) and moment (MT) estimates of 1/(2Ne) and m from simulations

ParametersML estimates of 1/(2Ne)aML estimates of mMT estimates of 1/(2Ne)aMT estimates of m
NemMeanSD2.5%97.5%MeanSD2.5%97.5%MeanSD2.5%97.5%MeanSD2.5%97.5%
1000.9750.2830.4651.5870.0160.0250.0010.0870.9710.3590.3801.7860.0060.039-0.0620.094
0.010.9960.2490.5361.5670.0160.0220.0010.0770.9600.3810.3571.8370.0160.041-0.0560.108
0.10.9990.2700.5061.5990.1070.0670.0010.2570.9410.3930.3061.8260.1140.084-0.0280.303
0.50.9080.2920.3821.5630.5030.2180.1601.0000.9480.4520.2592.0000.4830.1900.1510.874
10000.9820.2450.5191.4910.0040.0050.0000.0180.9910.3240.4331.7020.0030.008-0.0130.021
0.010.9720.2540.5191.4840.0140.0130.0010.0440.9440.3150.4221.6170.0160.017-0.0160.050
0.10.9910.2650.5141.5310.1160.0390.0390.1960.8990.3210.3351.5660.1180.0400.0420.198
0.50.9380.2930.4271.5330.4700.0910.3060.6680.7610.3790.0971.5900.4500.0920.2890.662
100001.0470.2600.5121.5640.0010.0010.0000.0041.0160.3310.4321.6740.0010.002-0.0020.005
0.011.0550.2410.5831.4880.0170.0100.0010.0410.9780.2920.4311.6480.0180.0110.0000.043
0.10.9930.2390.5001.4520.1180.0160.0910.1460.8150.3190.2401.5550.1170.0170.0890.144
0.51.0160.2800.5001.6130.4880.0390.4190.5690.6290.4310.0001.5050.4650.0370.4030.550
  • The simulated focal populations had various effective sizes (first column) and immigration rates (second column). Twenty loci, each having an equal number of alleles with initial frequencies drawn from a uniform distribution, were used in the estimation. A single sample from the large source and two samples separated by two generations from the focal population were taken with replacement. For populations with Ne = 10, 100, and 1000, the sizes of the three samples are 100, 200, and 1000 diploid individuals, respectively; the numbers of alleles per locus are two, four, and eight, respectively; and the numbers of replicates are 10,000, 1000, and 100, respectively. The estimation is summarized by the mean, standard deviation, and 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles of the estimates of 1/(2Ne) and m.

  • a The estimates of 1/(2Ne) are expressed relative to the true values to facilitate comparisons across wide ranges of the true parameter Ne.