TABLE 1

Comparison of 18 traits between cultivated (cmsHA89) and common (Helianthus annuus var. annuus) sunflower

TraitCultivated sunflower (cmsHA89)Common sunflower (H. annuus var. annuus)
Days to flower48–5052–68
Stem diameter1.9–2.1 cm1.2–1.4 cm
Height120–136 cm153–170 cm
No. of main stem leaves30–3274–90
Leaf shape (l/w)1.15–1.251.45–1.55
Leaf size (l × w)300–315 cm2180–270 cm2
Peduncle length5.4–6.2 cm5.8–11.8 cm
No. of branches012–16
No. of heads140–50
No. of heads/branchNA2.5–4.2
Disc diameter9.0–11.0 cm3.0–5.0 cm
No. of ray flowers30–3520–30
Ray size (ligule l × w)9.5–11.5 cm23.5–4.5 cm2
No. of selfed seedsaNANA
Achene weight55–65 mg9–10 mg
Achene length9.5–10.5 mm5.0–5.2 mm
Achene width5.0–5.2 mm2.4–2.6 mm
ShatteringNoYes
  • Data were obtained from Heiser et al. (1969), Kim and Rieseberg (1999), and from personal observations of greenhouse grown plants. NA, not applicable.

  • a Neither cmsHA89 nor H. annuus var. annuus are capable of self-fertilization, but for different reasons. cmsHA89 is self-compatible, but male sterile, whereas H. annuus var. annuus is self-incompatible.