TABLE 7

Results of AMOVA

df% varianceFixation indexP
Two groupsa
Among groups133.57ΦCT = 0.33569<0.005
Among populations within groups1026.96ΦSC = 0.40590<0.0001
Within populations41939.47ΦST = 0.60533<0.0001
Three groupsb
Among groups266.01ΦCT = 0.66009<0.005
Among populations within groups91.59ΦSC = 0.04688<0.0001
Within populations41932.40ΦST = 0.67603<0.0001
  • For methods and notations see Excoffier et al. (1992). Performed using Arlequin (Schneider et al. 1997).

  • a Two-group structure: Northeast (MA, RI, NY1, NY2, CT, NJ, PA, MD1) and Southeast (MD2, NC1, NC2, SC).

  • b Three-group structure: Northeast (MA, RI, NY1, NY2, CT, NJ, PA, MD1), mid-Atlantic (MD2, NC1, NC2) and South (SC).