TABLE 1

Conifer and other selected terpene synthases

Terpene synthase nameGenBank accession no.Reference
ProductsSpeciesFormer geneEnzymebcDNA/genomicbcDNAgDNAcDNAgDNARegion on chromosome
AbietadieneA. grandisag22AgggABIAgggabiU50768AF326516Stofer Vogel et al. (1996)Trapp and Croteautc
(E)-α-BisaboleneA. grandisag1AgfEαBISAgfEαbisAF006195AF326515Bohlmann et al. (1998a)Trapp and Croteautc
(-)-CampheneA. grandisag6Agg-CAMAgg-camU87910Bohlmann et al. (1999)
γ-HumuleneA. grandisag5AgfγHUMAgfγhumU92267Steele et al. (1998)
(-)-LimoneneA. grandisag10Agg-LIM1Agg-limAF006193AF326518Bohlmann et al. (1997)Trapp and Croteautc
MyrceneA. grandisag2AggMYRAggmyrU87908Bohlmann et al. (1997)
(-)-α/β-PineneA. grandisag3Agg-PIN1Agg-pin1U87909AF326517Bohlmann et al. (1997)Trapp and Croteautc
(-)-α-Pinene/(-)-limoneneA. grandisag11Agg-PIN2Agg-pin2AF139207Bohlmann et al. (1999)
(-)-β-PhellandreneA. grandisag8Agg-βPHEAgg-βpheAF139205Bohlmann et al. (1999)
δ-SelineneA. grandisag4AgfδSEL1Agfδsel1U92266AF326513Steele et al. (1998)Trapp and Croteautc
AgfδSEL2Agfδsel2AF326514
TaxadieneT. brevifoliaTb1TbggTAXTbggtaxU48796AF326519Wildung and Croteau (1996)Trapp and Croteautc
TerpinoleneA. grandisag9AggTEOAggteoAF139206Bohlmann et al. (1999)
5-epi-AristolocheneNicotiana tabacumTEAS3NtfeARI3Ntfeari3L04680L04680Facchini and Chappell (1992)Facchini and Chappell (1992)
TEAS4NtfeARI4Ntfeari4L04680L04680
5-epi-AristolochenepA. thalianaAteARIAteariAL022224Bevan et al.dsChromosome 4 BAC F1C12 (ESSA) nt 44054–38820
δ-CadineneG. arboreumCAD1-AGafδCAD1AGafδcad1aX96429Y18484Chen et al. (1996)Liang et al.ds
δ-CadineneG. hirsutumCAD1-AGhfδCAD1Ghfδcad1U88318Davis et al. (1998)
δ-CadineneG. arboreumgCAD1-BGafdCAD1BGafδcad1bX95323Chen et al.ds
CadinenepA. thalianaAtCADAtcadAL022224Bevan et al.dsChromosome 4 BAC F1C12 (ESSA) nt 44054–38820
CasbeneRicinus communiscasRcggCASRcggcasL32134NAMau and West (1994)Westpc
(-)-Copalyl diphosphateaA. thalianaGA1Atgg-COPP1Atggcopp1U11034NASun and Kamiya (1994)Sun et al. (1992)Chromosome 4 (Top) BAC
AC004044pBastide et al.ds,cT5J8 nt 34971–41856
ent-KaureneaA. thalianaGA2Atgg-KAUAtgg-kauAF034774AC007202Yamaguchi et al. (1998)Vysotskaia et al.ds, cChromosome 1 BAC T8K14 nt 43552–47420
(-)-LimonenePerilla frutescensPFLC1Pfg-LIM1Pfg-lim1D49368AB005744Yuba et al. (1996)Tsubouchids
(-)-LimoneneMentha spicataLMSMsg-LIMMsg-limL13459Colby et al. (1993)
(-)-LimoneneM. longifoliaLMSMlg-LIMMlg-limAF175323Crock and Croteauds, cJones and Davisps
Limonenep, iA. thalianaAtLIMA1Atlima1Z97341Bevan et al.psChromosome 4 CF6 (ESSA I) nt 164983–170505
AtLIMA2Atlima2
LimonenepA. thalianaAtLIMBAtlimbZ97341Bevan et al.psChromosome 4 CF6 (ESSA I) nt 172598–175344
(S)-LinaloolClarkia concinnaLISCcgLINOHCcglinohAF067602Cseke et al. (1998)Cseke et al. (1998)
LinaloolpA. thalianaAtgLINOHAtglinohAC02294FederspieldsChromosome 1 BAC FIIP17 nt 73996–78905
VetispiradieneHyoscyamus muticusChimeraHmfVETHmfvetU20187NABack and Chappell (1995)Chappellpc
VetispiradienepA. thalianaAtVETAtvetAL022224Bevan et al.dsChromosome 4 BAC F12C12 (ESSA) nt 54692–56893
  • tc, genomic sequences by Trapp and Croteau (accession nos. pending); NA, sequences unavailable in the public databases but disclosed in journal reference; pc, sequences obtained by personal communications; ds, sequences in public database by direct submission but not published; p, sequences in database with putative function; c, confirmed gene by experimental determination stated in database; i, two possible isozymes reported for the same region referred to as A1 and A2; —, no former gene name or accession number. Species names are: Abies grandis, Arabidopsis thaliana, Clarkia concinna, Gossypium arboreum, Hyoscyamus muticus, Mentha longifolia, Mentha spicata, Nicotiana tabacum, Ricinus communis, Perilla frutescens, Taxus brevifolia, Zea mays.

  • a Former names, respectively, for (-)-copalyl diphosphate synthase and ent-kaurene synthase were ent-kaurene synthase A (KSA) and ent-kaurene synthase B (KSB), and mutant phenotypes were ga1 and ga2; these designations have been used loosely.

  • b Nomenclature architecture is specified as follows. The Latin binomial two-letter abbreviations are in spaces 1 and 2. The substrates (1- to 4-letter abbrev.) are in spaces 3–6, consisting of 1- or 2-letter abbrev. for substrate utilized in boldface (e.g., g, geranyl diphosphate; f, farnesyl diphosphate; gg, geranylgeranyl diphosphate; c, copalyl diphosphate; ch, chrysanthemyl diphosphate; in lowercase) followed by stereochemistry and/or isomer definition (e.g., α, β, δ, γ, etc. followed by epi (e), E, Z, -, 1, etc.). The 3-letter product abbrev. indicates the major product is an olefin; otherwise the quenching nucleophile is indicated, (e.g., ABI, abietadiene synthase; BORPP, bornyl diphosphate synthase; CEDOH, cedrol synthase); uppercase specifies protein and lowercase specifies cDNA or gDNA. All letters except species names are in italics for cDNA and gene. Distinction between cDNA and gDNA must be stated or a g is added before the abbreviation, e.g., Tbggtax cDNA and gTbggtax, or Tbggtax gene (nomenclature system devised by S. Trapp, E. Davis, J. Crock, and R. Croteau).