TABLE 3

Estimates of composite genetic effects underlying divergence in wing length between the southern and northern populations of the three body size clines

Cline
SexParameterAustraliaSouth AmericaAfrica
Femalesm2.0555 ± 0.0036***2.0321 ± 0.0041***1.9292 ± 0.0246***
[a]0.0741 ± 0.0041***0.1154 ± 0.0033***0.1055 ± 0.0038***
[d]0.0233 ± 0.0057***0.0519 ± 0.0065***0.3380 ± 0.0565***
[aa]0.1143 ± 0.0240***
[ad]−0.0380 ± 0.0117**
[dd]−0.1312 ± 0.0349***
[am]
[dm]−0.0253 ± 0.0031***−0.0237 ± 0.0034***
cχ214.78 NS10.77 NS12.18 NS
Malesm1.7222 ± 0.0083***1.7630 ± 0.0036***1.7217 ± 0.0098***
[a]0.0626 ± 0.0035***0.1176 ± 0.0034***0.0858 ± 0.0046***
[d]0.0697 ± 0.0114***0.0309 ± 0.0057***0.1365 ± 0.0139***
[aa]0.0598 ± 0.0097***0.0917 ± 0.0112***
[ad]***
[dd]
[am]0.0179 ± 0.0034***
[dm]−0.0153 ± 0.0029***
c−0.0098 ± 0.0019***
Y−0.0055 ± 0.0018**
χ214.29 NS11.35 NS15.16 NS
  • Explanation of entries as for Table 2. NS, not significant; * P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001.