TABLE 2

Estimates of composite genetic effects underlying divergence in wing area between the southern and northern populations of the three body size clines

Cline
SexParameterAustraliaSouth AmericaAfrica
Femalesm1.2819 ± 0.0045***1.2789 ± 0.0052***1.1254 ± 0.0146***
[a]0.0820 ± 0.0037***0.1277 ± 0.0042***0.1368 ± 0.0047***
[d]0.0253 ± 0.0072***0.0505 ± 0.0082***0.1553 ± 0.0208***
[aa]0.0478 ± 0.0165**
[ad]*
[dd]***
[am]
[dm]−0.0278 ± 0.0040***−0.0333 ± 0.0043***
cχ213.98 NS16.99 NS17.42 NS
Malesm0.9352 ± 0.0087***0.9826 ± 0.0039***0.9390 ± 0.0118***
[a]0.0662 ± 0.0037***0.1164 ± 0.0037***0.0808 ± 0.0082***
[d]0.0583 ± 0.0120***0.0255 ± 0.0062***0.1412 ± 0.0166***
[aa]0.0503 ± 0.0102***0.1020 ± 0.0135***
[ad]**
[dd]
[am]0.0254 ± 0.0050***
[dm]−0.0196 ± 0.0032***
c−0.0094 ± 0.0020***
Y−0.0065 ± 0.0019**0.0099 ± 0.0030**
χ212.88 NS8.19 NS11.06 NS
  • The χ2 values were calculated using only those parameters whose values are shown. Asterisks without numbers indicate parameters that were not necessary to produce a satisfactory model, but which significantly improved the fit between model and data. The number of asterisks indicates the significance of the improved fit when the parameter was added. NS, not significant. * P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001.