TABLE 1

Estimates of rates and effects of deleterious mutations (per haploid genome)

SpeciesMethodReferenceU(SE) [95% CI](SE)
D. melanogasterMA (competitive viability)Mukai (1964)0.350.027
Mukai et al. (1972)0.470.023
Ohnishi (1977)0.140.030
MA (noncompetitive viability)Garcia-Dorado et al. (1999)0.020.10
MA (competitive viability)Fry et al. (1999)0.052(0.017)0.11(0.02)
Band-morphaHarada et al. (1993)0.050[0.014-0.13]
Molecular divergencebThis article0.028(0.002)
E. coliMA (fitness)Kibota and Lynch (1996)0.000170.012
MolecularcThis article0.0016
C. elegansMA (intrinsic growth rate)Keightley and Caballero (1997)0.0035(0.001)0.10(0.01)
Vassilieva and Lynch (1999)0.0080(0.014)0.21(0.18)
H. sapiensBand-morphdNeel et al. (1988)0.4[0.09-3.4]
Molecular divergenceeEyre-Walker and Keightley (1999)0.8(0.4)
  • Estimates from MA experiments are all based on models of equal effects. Approximate standard errors of confidence limits are given, where available.

  • a Band-morph amino-acid-altering mutation rate in protein coding sequences.

  • b Amino-acid-altering mutation rate based on divergence between melanogaster and obscura groups.

  • c Assumes an independent estimate for nucleotide mutation rate (see text).

  • d Band-morph amino-acid-altering mutation rate in protein coding sequences, assuming 38% of amino acid mutations are deleterious (see text).

  • e Amino-acid-altering mutation rate based on divergence between humans and chimpanzees.