TABLE 8

The effect of an additional Y chromosome in parents on the imprinting of the Dp(1;f)LJ9 mini-X chromosome

y za g53d/Dp(1;f)LJ9 progeny phenotype
Parental genotypePigment assayVisual assay
1. Direct paternal effect XY + mini-X vs. X/Y + Y + mini-X
XY + Dp male parent41 ± 20.10 ± 0.02
XY + Y + Dp male parent48 ± 30.12 ± 0.02
2. Direct maternal effect XX/mini-X vs. XX/Y/mini-X
XX + Dp female parent100 ± 30.92 ± 0.01
XX + Y + Dp female parent94 ± 41.0 ± 0
3. Paternal Y-effect XY vs. XYYmini-X females
XY ⊗ Dp female parent75 ± 100.73 ± 0.03
XY + Y ⊗ Dp female parent81 ± 101.0 ± 0
4. Maternal Y-effect XX vs. XXYmini-X males
XX ⊗ Dp male parent25 ± 50.05 ± 0.02
XX + Y ⊗ Dp male parent34 ± 110.03 ± 0.03

The effect of an additional Y chromosome in the parents (effect on establishment of the imprinting) was assessed both by pigment assay and visually in y za g53d/Dp(1;f)LJ9 test males. Four tests were performed to monitor the effect of an additional Y chromosome in the parents—an effect in the male parent with (test 1) and without (test 3) the mini-X chromosome, and in the female parent with (test 2) and without (test 4) the mini-X chromosome. The origin of the mini-X chromosome is given on the left. Full, wild-type garnet gene expression is 1.0 by the visual estimate method and full garnet gene expression by the pigment assay method is 100% wild-type pigment. The details of the crosses are given in materials and methods.