TABLE 1

Floral trait QTLs mapped in a Mimulus lewisii × M. cardinalis F2

TraitLinkage groupPVE (%)Mode of actionM. lewisii parental phenotype (mean ± σ)M. cardinalis parental phenotype (mean ± σ)ΔσLL homozygote mean at QTLCC homozygote mean at QTLHomozygote sample size
AttractionAnthocyanin concentration (A510)DC20.6R0.09 ± 0.040.87 ± 0.20180.150.34137
Carotenoid concentration (A450)AL84.3Ra0.13 ± 0.291.39 ± 0.3280.080.7612
CL75.7Ra0.150.9876
DC83.0R0.230.93137
Lateral petal width (mm)AL31.5A9.5 ± 0.816.1 ± 1.4710.914.512
BL17.9d11.514.1158
BC19.4a11.514.362
CL17.1d14.013.976
CC14.4r12.611.8169
DC5.4r12.713.7137
EL42.1ra11.315.385
HC13.5R12.214.0169
Corolla width (mm)AL31.5Ra27.8 ± 3.722.6 ± 4.1125.324.035
AC9.1R29.726.2243
BL3.3d26.329.2158
BC3.3da26.329.262
CL11.3a30.824.976
CC14.9da32.426.6169
DC5.6r29.425.7137
GL9.4ra26.631.6220
Corolla projected area (mm2)AL(1)16.5D583 ± 177559 ± 134148151348
AL(2)10.6R60851135
BL10.4d501649158
BC12.2a49466466
CL9.7d69655076
CC40.5Da802499150
EL14.7Ra49251185
Upper petal reflexing (1–5)AL51.4a1.72 ± 0.294.67 ± 0.3692.173.9935
AC37.7R2.343.80269
DC7.1r3.403.50137
EL4.7ra2.793.3585
HC5.0a2.943.48169
Lateral petal reflexing (1–5)AL68.8Ra1.05 ± 0.164.13 ± 0.5981.804.0635
AC34.4R2.163.60269
DC16.2R2.753.67137
EL64.5Ra2.124.2285
RewardNectar volume (μl)BL33.2A8.1 ± 2.8119.5 ± 29.21523.268.8158
BC33.1A22.868.862
EL30.2ra27.164.885
EfficiencyStamen length (mm)AL46.6a25.1 ± 0.643.1 ± 1.32230.437.812
AC23.3a31.336.4269
BL10.2A33.137.0158
BC12.5A32.937.266
DC17.6R34.037.1137
EL14.6A31.335.385
HC24.0R33.037.1169
Pistil length (mm)AL40.5A28.7 ± 0.849.1 ± 1.01533.942.512
AC18.9a35.241.0269
BL4.8A38.141.3158
BC5.7A37.841.266
DC33.1R39.643.0137
EL49.6A34.444.076
HC14.1r37.841.6169
Corolla aperture width (mm)AL9.6a7.1 ± 0.93.9 ± 0.636.174.8121
AC16.3da6.374.79269
BL12.0D4.545.36158
BC11.9Da4.515.3366
DC15.1a4.694.61137
FC17.7da5.734.6568
GL4.8d5.335.13137
HC6.5a5.494.75169
Corolla aperture height (mm)AL22.6A2.6 ± 1.04.5 ± 1.133.605.6412
AC5.1a4.385.24243
CC19.4r4.404.48169
HE7.2r4.545.42158
  • “Linkage group” refers to the map in Figure 3. PVE is the percent of F2 phenotypic variance explained, as calculated by interval mapping in MAPMAKER/QTL. The most likely mode of action of each QTL is shown with reference to the M. cardinalis allele. If the M. cardinalis allele is recessive to the M. lewisii allele, an “R” is found in the “Mode of action” column. “D” and “A” stand for “dominant” and “additive,” respectively. Uppercase letters are used when the statistical support for the most likely model is LOD >1 higher than any of the alternative modes.

  • a The QTL is in repulsion linkage phase with the RAPD markers (see text). The phenotypic mean and standard deviation are shown for the parental M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. The Δσ column shows the standardized difference (in units of standard deviation) between parental mean phenotypes. The phenotypic means of F2 plants homozygous for the M. lewisii (LL) or M. cardinalis (CC) allele at the QTL are given. The number of F2 plants homozygous for the RAPD marker nearest the QTL is shown to indicate the severity of segregation distortion near the QTL. Approximately 116 homozygotes are expected if the locus is segregating in the Mendelian 3:1 ratio.